Dutch artists: Alfons and Adrie Kennis
"This reconstruction is made on casts of the original bones from the Feldhover neanderthal.
Missing bones were added from other skeletons, Spy neanderthal, Kebara neanderthal and Monte Circeo neanderthal. First (if necessary) we reconstruct the missing and deformed parts.
After that we drill holes in the cast, we fit pegs in them, which length corresponds with the measurements of skinthickness of today's people (Helmer and Lebedinskaya) or apes.
After that we apply the muscles. Layers of plastic clay cover the muscles until the pegs are submerged in it.
The pegs can of course not be absolute guides because they are based on measurements of modern people and apes.
In this stage we already get a rough impression of the volume and contour of the face and body which can be quite a surprise. The forming of the nostrils, eyelids, lips and ears is educated guesswork. These parts of the face are very important to make a character and a portrait.
We want real characters so we give them more lively, expressive faces." Alfons and Adrie Kennis